IN COMMENTING on the first dozen years of his stewardship, Al Stearns often termed them the most exciting and constructive of all his years as Principal. By 1914 the school was literally transformed, its growth and expansion so rapid and striking as almost to defy detailed explanation. The new athletic system, a result of the growth, represented a real departure from earlier procedure, not only at Andover but among the schools and colleges of the entire nation. Peirson Page had established the principle of compulsory physical education for all. Now the time had come to expand on that philosophy and extend it to competitive interscholastic and intramural sports as well. No longer would the opportunity to participate in extramural competition be limited to the chosen few who were candidates for the school teams, while their mates warmed the bleachers or roamed the countryside seeking opportunity to get into trouble. Now every boy would have his chance, like it or not.
The plan, as first adopted in the fall of 1902, was a rather crude experiment and was later changed. The main objective, however, remained the same---to insure that every boy in school take part in competitive sports. The necessary competition in the original plan was to be provided through the natural rivalry between classes. Each class was divided into four divisions based on age and physical prowess, with the understanding that after a series of competitive games among themselves the outstanding performers would be melded into a class team to compete in an interclass series. After a three-year trial it was found that the competition was badly out of balance since the two lower classes, because of age and numbers, were no match for the two upper ones. Consequently, in January 1905 the program was completely revised with the adoption of a group system involving the division of the entire student body into Greeks, Gauls, Romans, and Saxons, with the provision that each boy should on entering school elect the group with which he would be associated during his stay in Andover. Teams were then selected from within each club and competed during the early season. The best players from among the firsts, seconds, and thirds of each group were then selected to represent their clubs in the championship games. The same system was applied to the physical education program, i.e., gym classes. "To provide further opportunity for club competition the tradition of 'Open Nights' was established on every Saturday night at the gymnasium. The first of these was held on 14 January 1905 and offered competition in two track events---one running and one jumping exercise---and an indoor baseball game between Classes A and B." As initially established, the plan provided for the selection of a club champion at the end of the year, that group whose members had accumulated the highest number of points throughout all three terms in both team and individual competition at the varsity and intramural levels.(1) The first edition of the Phillips Bulletin in the summer of 1906 carried the new schedule of the Physical Department and made appropriate comment on its efficacy:
|School Teams (Comprising about 45 men)||The balance of the Class Teams (Comprising about 105 men)||Student Body (Comprising about 300 men organized for outdoor and indoor work in season)|
|Fall Term||Fall Term||Fall Term|
|Track||Relay Teams||Track classes|
|Gun Club||Gymnasium class|
|Winter Term||Winter Term||Winter Term|
|Hockey||Athletic contests||Gymnasium classes|
|Baseball and track training||Gymnastic teams||Boxing|
|Spring Term||Spring Term||Spring Term|
A glance at the above schedule of the work directed by the Physical Department, with the number of men participating in each group, clearly indicates that the old criticism, that all the money, time, and glory are given to the favored few and that the mass of the student body are allowed to shift for themselves, can no more be applied to Phillips Academy. It has been customary for the ordinary fellow to sit on the bleachers and watch the school team do the work, thus getting his exercise only by proxy. The faculty, recognizing the situation, now requires that all members of the school shall either go out for some regular, organized team or elect one of the exercises in the third column of the schedule given above.
Under this radical scheme it has been the policy to allow a great degree of freedom in the selection of the kind of work in which a student wishes to participate, and, also, after the classes and teams are once formed, to allow the students themselves to organize and manage them.(2)
The last and most controversial revision of the sports program at Phillips Academy began in the Spring of 1907 with the hiring of W. Huston Lillard, a Dartmouth graduate. He was to assist in the work of the English department and have the principal charge of coaching the football team. For the two previous years the coach had been "Doc" O'Connor (John C.), a physician living in Haverhill, Massachusetts, and a former college star. His coaching record at Andover was awesome. Captain Hobb's team in 1905 was undefeated and gave up a total of nine points in eight games. Captain Fred Daly's team in 1906 lost one game to the Harvard Freshmen by a score of 6-0, winning nine others and yielding only twenty-two points in ten games. After the 1906 season, Dr. O'Connor intended to leave coaching to establish his own medical practice but was enticed to Hanover when Dartmouth, impressed by his football knowledge, made him a substantial offer to coach their varsity football team. O'Connor had been assisted in 1906 at Andover by Lillard, a former All-American end at Dartmouth who had just completed two years of graduate work in English at that institution. Huston Lillard, as an undergraduate at Hanover, had been a scholar, an athlete, and a religious leader in the community, and his knowledge of football so impressed Dr. O'Connor that he strongly recommended Lillard to succeed him as coach at Phillips Academy. The Faculty, as well as the football management, unanimously supported his recommendation.(3)
The appointment of Lillard marked a very significant step in the history of preparatory school athletics. The Academy had done away with paid professional coaches. Such men had become increasingly unpopular in the last few years, as they were held largely responsible for the brutality, the illegal recruiting, and the commercialism which had crept into college athletics, particularly football. Andover's decision to appoint a teacher-coach was a positive step in the development of the best in athletic sports and was generally applauded by the friends of the school and the public at large, the obvious exceptions being those sophomoric alumni who felt that the teacher-coach was not capable of producing winning varsity teams.(4)
Coach Lillard quickly dispelled any doubts about his capabilities as a football coach. In his first two years Andover won 10 games, lost 5, and tied 1, beating Exeter both times. In his one year away on a leave of absence to study at Oxford, the team had a losing season but defeated Exeter. When he returned in 1910, the team won 8 games, losing only to Yale Freshmen 6-0, and thumping the Red and Gray 21-0. But Lillard was now anxious to take the last step in what came to be known as the "Andover Plan." At Oxford he had been deeply impressed with the emphasis there placed on intramural sports, and his enthusiasm found a willing audience in Principal Stearns and Director Page, who heartily supported the ideas he had in mind. Originally the plan called for a postponement of the selection of the varsity until the latter part of the season, on the assumption that the team so selected would be made up of the outstanding players from several groups. For a number of years the program was followed with strikingly satisfactory results. But this plan too was later abandoned and the varsities were allowed to pick their best candidates and develop them through the whole of each season. Even so, the group contests not infrequently revealed promising players who were promptly taken over by the varsity squads.(5)
Phillips Academy opened in 1911, the first year of the experiment, with an enrollment of 561 students. All those who were physically able were encouraged to sign up for football; over two hundred did so and were promptly divided into four squads of approximately fifty boys each. They were drilled in the fundamentals of the game by faculty coaches led by Huston Lillard and Principal Al Stearns. This group included Horace Poynter, Greek and Latin; Robert Keep, German; C. A. Pifer, English; Oswald Tower, Mathematics; Archibald Freeman, History; James Graham, Science; and Julian Bryan, English. No outside games were played the first month. Aside from the physical aspects of the game, the boys were trained in "field judgment," the ability to think for themselves under pressure. Six intramural games were played, and those players who stood out in these contests were selected to represent the school. The first "varsity" practice was not held until 14 October and the first outside game against the Harvard Freshmen was played a week later on the 21st.(6)
The "Andover Plan" created extraordinary interest and received nationwide publicity through newspapers and magazines. Many schools and colleges watched and waited from afar, while some students and alumni shook their heads in disgust. Leading newspapers in the Boston area complained that they were getting no football news from Andover and therefore disapproved of the scheme. The Boston Journal stated the case:
Football men generally do not approve of the Andover plan for general application, claiming that the free circulation of ideas and methods which comes from an extended schedule with outside rivals is required to maintain high playing standards. Its applicability to secondary schools which have extended areas of available playing fields is readily apparent.(7)
The St. Paul (Minnesota) Dispatch expressed a different anti-professional point of view:
The reform that has been introduced at Andover is of the sort that is needed to preserve amateur athletics. It takes account of football, baseball, and other activities---and the system is to apply all the year at Andover---as agencies for the general development of the students. It takes account of football, for example, as a sport pure and simple and not as a means of demonstrating superiority over a rival institution, of scoring a victory for the sake of winning. Andover has the right idea and as the nursery of college athletics its influence should be far reaching.(8)
If a successful first season and a win over Exeter were to be the ultimate determinants of the new system's value, the gods were propitious on both counts. After working together only a week the picked team lost to Harvard Freshmen 21 to 0. Unfortunately for Andover that day Captain Van Brocklin, Sheldon, and Jones---the bricks and mortar of the line---were sidelined for academic reasons, and Eddie Mahan, star halfback and later All-American at Harvard, was incapacitated with a badly sprained ankle. But the following week and thereafter, with all the former delinquents and walking wounded present and accounted for, Andover defeated strong Dartmouth and Yale Freshmen teams on successive Saturdays. The crowning vindication came at Exeter on 11 November, when a powerful line, spearheaded by Van Brocklin and Jones, stopped the Red cold, while a flying fullback named Mahan kept eight thousand spectators, the largest crowd ever to watch a game on Exeter's Plimpton Field, on their feet with his spectacular running and kicking. The final score of 32 to 5 was satisfying for many reasons. The experiment had been a spectacular success; thereby the scoffers were silenced. The starting quarterback---Thompson---and two starting tackles---Roberts and Enwright---had been unknowns who were discovered only through the new trial and selection process. Finally, Andover showed a more deceptive, imaginative, wide-open offense, designed to strike more at the Exeter flanks than at their center and keyed to the talents of her brilliant fullback. It appeared that football could be taught and taught well by amateur academicians. The Andover case for anti-professionalism was nationally illustrated, with photographs, by Outing magazine in May 1913 in an article entitled "How Andover solved The Athletics Problem." The writer, H. J. Case, was impressed by the new plan and its essential egalitarianism:
Out-of-door sports at Andover are made compulsory, and when the play hour begins there are from 250 to 500 boys in playing togs, cheerleaders, "rooters", and class officers included. No exceptions. Everybody gets out! The energy of the growing boy is conserved and properly fed into growing bodies and brains. Football, baseball, track, soccer, and cross-country are taught by the same men who lecture and hear recitations. The professional coach is gone; the position abolished. Perhaps the faculty coach is not so picturesque nor steeped in the same tense atmosphere as the professional. Probably he doesn't wear that hard, fighting face or lapse at times into the coarse vernacular heard on some playgrounds. But he knows how to teach and what he is teaching. At Andover one of the faculty coaches uses a primer. The boys are taught and quizzed from it much in the same manner as they are in algebra and Latin. The training table has gone, also. It passed with the old regime. Each boy now has to learn what he can eat with safety and what is injurious to him. He does not have the luxury of a specially furnished table with specially cooked food.(9)
Athletic democracy had come to Zion's Hill with considerable fanfare. The Andover Plan had proved itself and would remain an integral part of the school's athletic program until mid-century.
Wittingly or not, the school administration's decision to change its athletic system had a timely effect on a larger reform movement to eliminate football at the college level. In the year 1905-1906 football sank to its lowest depths, owing to the great number of deaths and crippling injuries resulting from mass plays where brute strength and great weight were the determining factors. Many college presidents, led by Eliot of Harvard, either banned football or threatened to do so. Parents of many players forbade them to play. President Theodore Roosevelt, though dedicated to the robust life, said that the game should be made safer. (10) The academic community also insisted on the elimination of "dirty play" deliberately intended to maim, and the illegal proselytizing by coaches and alumni of athletes academically unqualified for admission. As a case in point for the first charge, Andover's eleven had six of its starters out with serious injuries in the fall of 1905. Shady recruiting practices at Andover were obliquely referred to by Al Stearns in describing the resistance to the Andover Plan among some alumni, who insisted that their old school was going to the dogs and was fast becoming a kindergarten. "Remembering their own undergraduate days, when, because so many athletes stopped off on their way to college and made possible teams of collegiate character, they were sure that their old school was 'going intellectual' and that athletics no longer counted. Letters of protest from these disgruntled 'fans' flooded his desk."(11)
Nevertheless Stearns, like his counterpart at Exeter, Principal Harlan Page Amen, took issue with President Eliot on the subject of eliminating the game of football:
Mental and physical alertness, discipline, self-reliance, self-control, the power of unified action can hardly be better taught than through the game of football. It is too grand a game to let go. Colleges should clean their own houses and establish high academic and eligibility requirements for admission and participation of athletes. (12)
Newly appointed Principal Stearns stood shoulder to shoulder with Amen in defending the game. In 1906 the football leaders throughout the country met and changed the rules of football to eliminate some of the abuses and open up the game: the forward pass was introduced; the number of officials was increased to four---a referee, two umpires, and a linesman; the length of a game was reduced to 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes each; the distance to gain on downs was increased to 10 yards. The game of football was thereby saved for posterity.(13)
Aside from the major shift in the philosophy of athletics at Andover, many other changes in the size of the program and its administration took place during this period. From the beginning of his term of office one of Principal Stearns' constant aims was to improve the scholarship as well as the moral standards of the student body. Under Principal Bancroft the unfortunate and demoralizing housing conditions worked against the accomplishment of those aims. Thanks to the unprecedented generosity of Melville C. Day of the Class of 1858, who gave to the school six new dormitory units between 1891-1913, one of the major obstacles was removed. The institution of Division Officers in 1906 marked a significant step forward. To each was assigned a group of approximately twenty boys, including first those rooming in his dormitory or house and the balance, if any, residing nearby. The Division Officer's first task was to become intimately acquainted with his charges so that he would be able to help each individual boy solve his special problems---academic or social---in an intelligent way.(14)
The third step taken to improve scholarship directly affected the makeup of school teams. There was introduced the plan of monthly scholarship ratings under which honor grades and failures were reported to parents and guardians. By this process a boy's scholastic standing and his ability or inability in consequence to secure out-of-town and weekend excuses and to participate in sports and other school activities was now to be decided on these ratings instead of on the term-end reports as formerly. (15) The new regimen as initially implemented raised havoc with the organization of all teams playing outside competitive schedules. The composition of the teams sometimes varied drastically from month to month and certainly resulted in some losses which would not have been sustained had the first stringers been in the lineup. At the beginning of every term the Phillipian carried a warning to the varsity hopefuls:
It is necessary at this time to call attention to the approaching monthly rating. This rating of every fellow's work in the school will take place about the middle of October and all fellows having conditions will not be eligible for the football team until these are removed, and they are not eligible to represent the school in any of the school games.
Later these ratings were changed from monthly to mid-term and the degree of restriction varied with the seriousness of the conditions. If a student failed to pass sixty percent of his academic work measured in terms of class hours, he was placed on Non-Excuse for one half of a term or roughly six weeks until the next rating. A varsity athlete, then, under those conditions could play at home, but could not accompany the team out of town. More serious academic failures or unlawful social behavior put a student on "Pro." He then became ineligible to compete at all for an entire term and was required to walk circumspectly for that period if he wanted to remain on the rolls of Phillips Academy. Obviously the ratings were regarded seriously by the student body and helped greatly to spur the laggards to more continuous academic effort. But coaches and captains of Andover teams under this system, which prevailed for fifty years, lived in terror of the rating, which occasionally devastated their ranks.(16) "Last year several of the best teams we played had to be played with a team composed mostly of substitutes, because the fellows did not have time to get off their conditions."
Student interest continued to range over a variety of new individual and team games which enjoyed increasing popularity in the quarter century before the outbreak of World War I. Between 1898 and 1914 the athletic offerings included ice hockey, soccer, basketball, golf, swimming, and wrestling in addition to the standbys: football, baseball, tennis, and track. Also, in the winter season, the gymnasium programs developed great interest in boxing, fencing, and gymnastics. Dr. Page's system was flexible enough to cater to the interests as well as the needs of the students.
The first appearance of ice hockey in the United States in 1893 can be traced to two places and three individuals. Two Yale tennis stars, Malcolm D. Chace and Arthur E. Foote, who visited Canada for tennis tournaments, became enthusiastic about hockey while there and brought the game back to their campus in New Haven, Connecticut. In the same year a Montreal visitor, C. Shearer, while studying at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, formed a team of students and induced a Quebec team to visit Baltimore to engage the collegians in a contest. Within five years' time the sport had spread rapidly and teams were playing in New England, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, as far west as Chicago, and as far south as Washington, D.C. (17)
It is reasonable to assume that the combination of the location of Andover in northern New England and her long-standing ties with Yale were directly responsible for the school's early involvement in ice hockey. Once again it took the ever-prickly voice of the Phillipian to remind the student body of their obligations, chiding the President of the Skating Association for not at least finding out whether the school was willing to support a team. It was suggested that a meeting of all those interested in the game be called and that temporary officers of a Hockey Association be elected. They would then decide the time and place of the daily practices of the aspirants for the team; "in this way the team can be chosen and it is very certain that Andover will make a good showing in this,---the best of winter games." The response to this sage advice was immediate; the following day W. Roberts, P.A. 1898, was elected temporary captain of the hockey team. This peripatetic young man had been captain of an undefeated Lawrenceville hockey team the year before. (18)
When school reconvened after the Christmas holidays, the next steps to legitimize hockey were taken. As in the other branches of athletics a permanent association was formed and a manager was selected to help the captain in his duties and arrange games for the team. One week later on 19 January the first Phillips Academy Ice Hockey Team played the Andover Town Team in an informal game on Rabbit Pond. The game was played in two fifteen-minute halves and won by the Academy 4 to 0. Ten days later Andover played its first formal game against the M.I.T. varsity on Rabbit Pond and lost 1 to 0. This game was divided into two twenty-minute halves. A third game against the Harvard varsity had been scheduled for 9 February in Boston but had to be cancelled because hockey, as yet, had not fallen under the Athletic Association's control and thus there were no funds to make the trip. The season then came to an abrupt end when Rabbit Pond was inundated with two feet of snow and the Skating Association, in "straitened conditions," had no money for its removal. A collection was taken to defray the current expenses of the hockey team at a school meeting called for that purpose; the total amount collected was $24.70. Despite its rather hyphenated starting year, hockey continued to survive under difficult conditions as an independent, self-supporting organization, and the necessary funds were raised by voluntary subscription until it later came under the auspices of the Athletic Association. The school has been represented on the ice every year since, although the first Andover-Exeter hockey game was not played until 1914.(19)
Interest in golf on the campus was kindled by the organizing of the Andover (Town) Golf Club in October 1898. The links were situated near Rabbit Pond. Though the nine-hole course apparently was "very good for a natural one," the Advisory Committee hired a professional golfer to supervise the work on the greens. The membership in the Club was restricted to fifty, but Phillips students could be elected as members while attending the Academy.(20) The membership fee was $5.00 for men and $3.00 for ladies. Charlie Forbes, the beloved classics teacher on the Andover faculty, was the treasurer of the new organization. There was no indication of student interest in the club, but by the fall of 1899 students were playing the course, some of them sneaking on illegally:
Several fellows who do not belong to the Golf Club have, of late, been playing on the links. This is manifestly unfair to those who have paid their dues. The members pay to keep the links in good condition and have, therefore, a perfect right to "howk" up the turf of the fair greens. It is a difficult and expensive piece of work to get comparatively new links into good shape, and doubly so when novices who have no right on the course go around and injure the turf.
Later that December, twenty-three Phillipians were elected to membership in the club and plans were made to build a small, inexpensive club house, money to be raised through membership subscriptions. By the following spring the climate of opinion was favorable for the organization of a golf team. Many schools had them and competition would arouse student interest. A number of boys who did not represent the school in football, baseball, tennis, or track would have a chance to do so. The golf club could be merged into an association under the Athletic Department.
Shortly after the opening of school in September 1900, twenty aspirants signed up for the golf team. Two weeks later a seven-man team defeated the Vesper Country Club team at Lowell by a score of 16 to 0. However, there was no more extra-mural competition reported for the rest of the term. The following spring qualification rounds were started by mid-April with challenge matches scheduled twice a week. The material promised to be excellent even though there were turned in only four scores under 100 for the 18 holes. At the end of the month a sweep-stake handicap match was held to select the team; golf balls were the prizes offered. The first official match was played on 4 May with the Bear Hill Golf Club of Wakefield. Although Captain Slosson, Lewis, and Ehrick played well for Andover, the team lost by a score of 25 to 12. Four more outside matches were played that year, Andover losing twice to Newton High and once each to the Lawrence Golf Club and the Andover Golf Club. In 1902 the first match was held against Exeter. Six-man teams played eight matches, of which Andover won 2, lost 4, and tied 2. The last match in this particular series was played in 1909, whereupon golf was discontinued because the Andover Golf Club disbanded and the school team no longer had a course on which to play.(21)
It was predictable that with the new gym entering its final stages of completion the attention of the school should turn to basketball. At that time the game was only ten years old, having been invented by Dr. James Naismith of the International Y.M.C.A. Training School at Springfield as a recreational game which could be played indoors at night and thereby increase the membership in the Y's throughout the country. The phenomenal growth in popularity of this only truly American game is now history.(22) Some of the larger independent schools were already playing it, and here was the chance for more competition in a sport other than hockey in the winter term. With student opinion enthusiastically behind him, Manager McLanahan, in early January 1902, called a meeting of all those interested in trying out for the basketball team. He had already drawn up a schedule for the upcoming season. The first game ever for an Andover basketball team was played on 15 February at 8:00 p.m. in the Town Hall, where the Harvard Freshmen were defeated 4 to 29. The next five games---all victories---were also played there because the new gymnasium was not yet ready for use. In the last game of the season, played on 22 March to dedicate the Borden Gymnasium, the team won over Boston University to close out an undefeated season. Expenses for the year were met by charging $.25 admission at the gate. William L. Silleck and his four cohorts---McGovern, Schildmiller, Thompson, and Clough---played the entire seven games without substitution, a not inconsiderable demonstration of endurance. Even more remarkable was the feat of Silleck, who had captained the hockey team the year before and was playing coverpoint for them again that winter in addition to playing guard as the captain of the basketball team. Since the icemen had won seven games that winter, losing only two close games to St. Paul's and the Harvard varsity, he had been instrumental in fourteen Andover victories covering two different sports. It is hardly necessary to add that he won the insignia award for both. Another outstanding athlete on that first basketball team was George Henry Schildmiller from Brattleboro, Vermont, who would win ten letters before he graduated in 1906, four as a forward in basketball, three as a left end in football, and three as an outfielder in baseball.(23)
Over the next ten years Andover's basketball team compiled an impressive record of 92 wins and 42 losses, many of the victories coming at the expense of college varsities. The year 1909 showed another undefeated record. For some unaccountable reason, however, interest in the sport waned over the next three years. Fewer games were scheduled, and the losses in those successive years exceeded the wins. Despite the addition of a very knowledgeable faculty coach, Oswald Tower, by 1912 the situation was desperate. The competitive season was shortened to eight games because of the new method of selecting the varsity, and Andover lost the first three. At the end of the term the sport was discontinued temporarily:
The basketball situation is evidently not clear to all. Opposition to the game has been increasing for some years past; so that this year it came up for definite decision before the Athletic Advisory Board, who have voted to abolish the game.(24)
This announcement in the Bulletin was the only notice taken of the loss. Perhaps some complained about the increasing amount of physical contact which had crept into the game in recent years. Others maintained that hockey, an outdoor activity, was the proper and most healthful winter sport. Possibly the growing popularity of boxing, fencing, wrestling, gymnastics, and swimming had overstrained the gymnasium's capability to handle all these indoor sports. Some definite indications of overcrowding in the Borden facility can be found in the decision to cut the indoor track schedule to three meets that winter and to train the runners for them only on the outdoor board track. Also when wrestling was adopted the following year, its workouts were confined to a small attic room in the gym scarcely large enough to accommodate two competing squads and accessible only by an iron ladder running from the upstairs indoor track to a trapdoor in the ceiling. Even in a compulsory program, 550 participants cannot assure the right number of qualified athletes for too many competitive sports in any one term, and the basketball talent had dropped off badly in the most recent expansion of the athletic activities in the school. The coup de grace may have been the impossibility of spicing the schedule with the traditional Exeter game since the New Hampshire rival was not yet equipped to play basketball. Reasonably or not, the game was not reintroduced until 1919, since when it has remained one of the most popular winter sports. In 1920 the first Andover-Exeter basketball game was held in the Borden Gymnasium and resulted in a win for the Blue, 31-26.(25)
The first indication of a revival of interest in soccer on Andover Hill occurred on Saturday, 25 November 1905. On that day an Association Football game took place on Brothers Field between Fall River and the Andover Town Team, the former reputed to be the best soccer team in New England and the city itself the hotbed of the sport in this country. The game had come about as the result of a combination of circumstances. Earlier in the fall the Pilgrims, an all-England soccer team, came to this country to play a series of all-star teams made up of the best American players. The major reason for the visit was to stimulate interest in the game among schools and colleges in the United States. The Fall River team had been scheduled to play Andover in October, but because three of their players were playing on the Boston All-Stars against the Pilgrims in an international match on that same day, they prevailed upon the locals to postpone the earlier game to November. Enthusiasm in the town ran high, for the players from both teams were almost exclusively of British origin and had been lured to this country by the promise of good jobs in the textile mills of New England and the chance to play for pay in an industrial league which had been formed in 1887 and was called the New England Association Football League.(26)
Despite the visit of the Pilgrims and later, in 1906, that of the famous Corinthian Football Club of London, the attempts to introduce the game into our universities and colleges met with little success until 1907, when Harvard, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Cornell, and Haverford formed the Intercollegiate Association Football League.(27) The following year there was scheduled for the first time at Phillips Academy a series of interclass soccer games which were to be played every Wednesday beginning on 28 October and continuing to December. The class teams had been picked from those who had tried out for soccer the week before. The next step, of course, was to form an association, pick a school soccer team, and challenge Harvard, always Andover's most convenient rival. On 1 December 1909, the Phillips Academy soccer team lost to the Harvard varsity at Cambridge by a score of 2 to 0. A week later they defeated the Harvard Freshmen, 2 to 1 at home. That fall two other games were played against a local team---the Andover Thistles. Since then the game has been played regularly every fall against a variety of opponents. The schedule, until 1920, ranged from the Harvard and Yale varsities and freshmen to Worcester Academy and many strong amateur teams in the greater Lawrence area.(28) However, since there was no Exeter contest prior to 1930, it was not until the spring of 1911 that the Athletic Advisory Board saw fit to recognize soccer officially and award the players of the 1910 team their letters at a school meeting on 22 April. Ironically, Association Football at the school today outdraws American football three to one in terms of student participation.
Another dimension was added to the athletic program with the addition of the swimming pool to the gymnasium, a testimonial to the active efforts of the undergraduate body over a period of ten years. On opening day, 2 December 1911 over 400 students, anxious to enjoy the new luxury, had to be subdivided into four class groups, each to swim for a designated hour over the afternoon. A schedule for the regular use of the pool was then established. The facility would be open from two-thirty to four o'clock weekdays except for half-holidays, when it would be open from two to five; on Saturday evenings from seven-thirty to nine-thirty; and on Sunday afternoons from two-thirty until four-thirty. To supervise the operation of the pool and to instruct in swimming, William A. Murray, formerly an experienced lifeguard at Revere Beach, was hired. In addition to being on duty when the pool was open, he would give private lessons to students who wished them.(29) Plans were also made to amortize the ten thousand dollar debt which the Athletic Association had incurred by borrowing from the Trustees in order to complete the pool project. The new boys and the old ones who had not yet subscribed to the fund would be solicited. Individuals who contributed twenty or more dollars would be entitled to free use of the pool during their entire stay at Andover. Those who did not make a minimum contribution would be charged for the use of the pool.(30)
Four days after the opening there began the inevitable sequence of events which led to the formation of a school swimming team when an interclass meet was conducted which the class of 1913 won. These intramural meets continued to be held until Andover's first competitive swimming team met Harvard in an exhibition meet on 24 February 1912 and emerged victorious. On 10 April the team, captained by B. M. Fullerton, engaged in a triangular meet with Lawrenceville and the Yale Freshmen; Andover came in third. The last contest of the season was against the Lawrence Y.M.C.A. team on 20 April, a meet which the school team won. For the first two years the swimming team had no coach, but in 1914 Alexander Sutherland of the Brookline Baths was hired. Through his ability and enthusiasm he turned out consistently good teams until 1917, when he left to enter military service. The 1918 and 1919 teams were coached by Vaughn Blanchard of the faculty in Sutherland's absence. His return in 1920 marked the first Exeter swimming meet, won by Andover in the new Exeter pool by the score of 33 to 20.(31)
The emergence of another sport as an interscholastic activity came about more gradually after the opening of the Borden Gymnasium in 1902. Boxing, wrestling, and fencing had enjoyed a certain popularity among many students and some faculty members even before the new building was completed, and they had always been part of the Saturday night exhibitions in the winter term. While boxing and fencing required specialized coaching, the fees for which were paid by the student participants, wrestling and gymnastics after 1902 became more attractive because the new gym apparatus, prescribed by Dr. Anderson of Yale, the forerunner of our modern "Universal Gym" and "Nautilus" equipment, included thirty-two different pieces designed to develop strength and agility; moreover, it was readily accessible to all without charge. By 1912, then, the Athletic Department was faced with a problem of priorities in the use of the gymnasium during the winter term. The resolution, adopted largely for economic reasons, involved track, boxing, basketball, gymnastics, fencing, and wrestling.
The candidates for the track team who were runners were asked to take "road tramps" three times a week; the candidates for the field events took "tramps" once a week and practiced in the gymnasium on Wednesdays and Saturdays under the direction of their coaches. Unfortunately for the track aspirants, the board track on the west quadrangle they had used for eight years had disintegrated and had not been replaced.(32) The gymnastic team of nine performers, which had engaged in exhibition competitions with Harvard and Yale gymnasts over the last few years, would be retained as an "Association" sport.(33) Boxing and fencing would continue on a more casual basis, their inclusion in the program each year being entirely dependent upon student interest and the availability of competent instruction. Wrestling, since the training facilities for the sport could be encompassed in a relatively small area and the matches took place in the day time, would be far more economical than basketball, just so long as the participants subsidized the services of a professional coach. The following winter of 1913 the school hired "Cyclone Burns," one of the best light-heavyweight professional wrestlers in New England, to coach. "Cy" Carlson [his real name], as he later became fondly known by Andoverians, was subsidized by his protégés, who paid $10.00 per term for instruction. However, he whipped up sufficient enthusiasm for wrestling among the students to put a team of five together the first year. This group lost their only match of the year against the Harvard 2nds by a score of 3 to 2. The following year the Andover team, which had now grown to nine wrestlers, defeated the Yale Freshmen and Allen School, but lost to the Boston Y.M.C.A., 5 to 1. In that meet Captain H. M. "Mac" Baldridge pinned Mallech, the New England heavyweight amateur champion, for Andover's only winning match. Since then wrestling has always been recognized as one of the minor sports, competing every winter against outside teams in the traditional six weights--- 119, 129, 139, 149, 159 lbs., and heavyweight.
Gymnastics as a minor sport did not fare as well as wrestling in the long range scheme of athletics at Andover. From the time of the opening of the new gym, Dr. Page had tried to raise enthusiasm for this highly disciplined activity by inviting gymnastic teams like Yale's or Harvard's to put on exhibitions for the students on Saturday nights. He was only partially successful, but by 1913 Andover had developed a competitive "Gymnasium" team.
Gymnastics was temporarily one of the accredited minor sports, but the predictions for its permanent retention of that status were ominous. By 1914, nevertheless, ten different sports activities had been given the official imprimatur of the Athletic Association: in addition to the latest newcomer to the list they were football, baseball, track, hockey, swimming, wrestling, soccer, tennis, and golf. The first three above were the major sports; the rest were minor.(34)
In spite of the rich diversity of the athletic offerings, there were sporadic attempts by certain students to revive interest in crew and lacrosse after the turn of the century. One rowing enthusiast in the class of 1901 protested that although Andover was one of the leading prep schools in the country, her attitude toward rowing was decidedly backward. Referring to the earlier experiment, which had failed because the distance to the Merrimack River was too great, he suggested that a simple boathouse be constructed on Foster's Pond in North Reading, a site which could easily be reached by the "electrics" in ten or fifteen minutes. Certainly the Andover alumni at Yale would again be willing to donate a shell. If the proper authorities took the matter in hand immediately, it might be possible for the school to enter the B.A.A. interscholastic regatta in the spring. The plea went unheeded, and the clamor for crew was not heard again for another dozen years, when the Lawrence Canoe Club offered the Academy the use of its boathouse to develop a crew which might meet Exeter on the Merrimack River. One of the members of the club, who had rowed at Harvard, was certain that shells could be purchased at a nominal price. The proposal was given very careful consideration at that time because Mr. Pifer of the faculty, who had been captain of his college crew at Oxford, was on hand to coach. Another incentive was the fact that Exeter had started rowing. The committee on athletics, nonetheless, decided that it would be "inexpedient" to start a crew program at that time, and the offer of the Lawrence club was politely refused.(35) Curiously enough, Andover's first crew would be launched from that identical site forty-two years later.
Attempts to rekindle interest in lacrosse developed periodically after the fall of 1906, but the sport was not officially recognized by the Athletic Association until 1912, when an Andover team played four games in ten days during the month of May and lost all four. The total budget for their season amounted to $57.66, but they were now carried as an official sport under the aegis of the Association. The following spring interest in the game fell off, and there were no games played. the next year an Andover team lost to the Boston Lacrosse Club 11 to 4, and the Athletic Council considered abandoning the sport as being too expensive and attracting too few players. In April 1915, Dr. Page revealed to the school a letter he had received from a former Blue lacrosse player, then at Yale, begging the Athletic Department not to give up the game, as Andover graduates provided most of the manpower for the Yale lacrosse teams. Despite the second-hand appeal, only thirteen students signed up for the sport.(36) The poor showing immediately elicited a Phillipian editorial which flatly stated that lacrosse was not wanted at Andover because the school had too many sports already, and lacrosse detracted from "Major Athletics." The year 1916 marked the demise of lacrosse at Andover for the second time. That spring Captain Dean and his thin squad of fifteen players played a four-game schedule, consisting of contests with three Harvard teams and the Boston Lacrosse Club; they won two and lost two.(37) Hopes were high for the next year, as many on the team were returning. But 1917 saw Phillips Academy largely turn to military training in the spring in lieu of athletics. Lacrosse, the least robust of the minor sports, was lost in the transition and would not be rediscovered for another decade.
Traditionally track has always been accepted as one of the three major sports at Andover; yet until well into the 20th century it lagged far behind baseball and football in arousing the intense enthusiasm created by the other two. From the outset it had to overcome the three problems of identity, a facility, and popular appeal to a game-sport-oriented audience. Until 1895 "track games" were listed under "general athletics," which included, along with running and jumping events, a variety of others like the sack race, three-legged race, potato race, baseball throw, and bicycle race. It was not until 1899 that the Fall Tournament became the Fall Track Meet; and it was not until 1901 that Andover and Exeter agreed to substitute the discus throw for the bicycle race in their annual dual meet. Prior to the construction of the outdoor track in 1891, the tournaments in the fall and spring were held on the Elm Walk on the Seminary Campus and were looked upon as amusing diversions. The winter tournaments, held in the Brick Gym, obviously included very few track events. Finally, track, being more an individual sport, caters to a different kind of spectator from those whose emotional fulfillment is derived from their vicarious participation in combative team contests. It was predictable, then, that the third sport would suffer a bad let down between 1892 and the turn of the century. Unlike the other two, which still carried extensive schedules, track, with the suspension of the Exeter meet, found itself with no outside competition. Even the tennis matches with Exeter had taken place in the spring of 1893 and again that fall just prior to Andover's interdict against all future contests with the New Hampshire rival. An Andover track team would not participate against Exeter on a dual-meet basis for the next five years.
The attempts to keep the interest alive led to a variety of experiments: in 1893 a Fall Tournament was organized for the first time; it included a new hammer-throwing event. The Track Association resisted successfully a recommendation from the Advisory Committee that it join with the Tennis Association in the early fall of 1894. When the Winter Tournament in 1895 had to be cancelled because there were too few entries, a substitute for the Exeter meet was arranged on 8 June with Worcester Academy, and the team entered the Interscholastic games held in Cambridge the following week. The results for Andover in both of these new rivalries were disastrous. Phillips Academy lost that first dual meet, the first of four consecutive defeats she would suffer at the hands of the western Massachusetts academy through 1898. Apathy continued to prevail and the second Fall Track Tournament in 1895 was cancelled. The earlier enthusiasm for a new "Track League" with Lawrenceville was muted by considerations of expense and eligibility requirements. Nothing daunted, Andover became a member of the new National Interscholastic Athletic Association, whose bylaws and constitution were published in the Phillipian in January 1896, with an admonitory editorial suggesting that track had been terribly neglected and that there would need to be considerable improvement if "we are to be represented in the N.I.A.A." Later in the term Captain Tyler's call for candidates to represent Andover for the first time in the Boston Athletic Association Interscholastic games on 7 March was answered by ten aspirants, whose efforts ultimately produced 4-1/5 points to finish a sorry third behind Boston English High School and Worcester Academy. An almost identical pattern maintained in the spring, Andover again following behind Worcester and Boston English, having already lost the second dual meet to the former earlier in the season. Prospects for the future of track at the school were never dimmer than when the old gymnasium, its refuge in the winter, burned down in June of that year. For the next five years the track program remained in jeopardy, a mere handful of the faithful keeping it alive. To rekindle interest they sponsored a class handicap tournament in mid-October of 1896 which 1897 won, sent a minimal contingent to participate in the B.A.A. indoor games the following February, and even went so far as to hire, for the first time, an outside professional---a Mr. Brennan of Fitchburg, Massachusetts---to coach the team from 1 May to the Exeter meet. The new approach was rewarding in that for the fourth consecutive time in the interrupted series, Andover won over Exeter by the score of 66-1/2 to 37-1/2 Alas, the glory was evanescent; the Andover track teams would not beat the Exonians again for five years. Troubles, now coming not singly but in battalions, continued to plague the track devotees. In 1898 the outdoor track, located on the present site of Adams Hall, burned down. Some indication of track's position in the athletic pecking order came from a member of the student body in the fall of 1898:
A week or so ago a picture of last year's track team was hung up in the hall of the academy. It has been customary to hang only the football and baseball pictures there. Football and baseball have always been the most important branches of our athletics and are now, I think, considered as such. With limited space available, if we allow the track picture to remain where it is, why not hang up last year's hockey team picture? It made as good a record as the track team, for out of two games played, it won one, but the track team lost every meet.
The Phillipian did not agree with the author of the article on the grounds that the true Andover spirit honors a defeated team as well as a victorious one, but essentially sustained his argument because it had never been the custom to display track pictures in the hall; furthermore, the remaining space in the hall was wanted by the football and baseball teams.
The situation became critical in the winter term. The conditions for training a track team were deplorable. There was no gym except the shell of the old one, and there was no outdoor track. Captain Kimball proposed to work out the hurdlers, high jumpers, pole vaulters, shot putters, and hammer men in the old gym shell along with the sprinters. The distance men would be given cross-country courses to run. Hoping to entice the best talent into track so that the team could make a respectable showing at the big indoor meets in Boston, he persuaded five members of the Harvard team to come out with their coach to train the Andover athletes in their specialties. Two nights later an athletic mass meeting was held in the Chapel, and speeches were made by Mr. Lathrop, the Harvard trainer, Captain Kimball, and E. B. Baynton, a prominent member of the Andover 1898 team. All spoke of the value of the training regimen for track and how it complemented skills in other sports. Mr. Lathrop then stressed the need for an outdoor track at the school, which could be one eighth of a mile long and would cost only $78.00. Pledging $5.00 himself and offering to come out to Andover on Saturdays to help coach the team, he then turned the meeting over to Captain Kimball, who asked the gathering to subscribe money towards the erection of a new track. Within five minutes $1000.00 was pledged and the success of the project guaranteed. Track as a major sport had survived the first crisis. Unfortunately, there would be others: the new outdoor track, which ultimately had cost $3000.00, was burned by vandals on the Fourth of July in 1903. Through the efforts of Jim Sawyer, the Treasurer of the Academy, and Dr. Page, enough money was squeezed from Athletic Association funds to build a much bigger wooden track in that area of the west quadrangle which lies between the present Bishop and Adams Halls on the east and Johnson Hall and Rockwell House on the west. In 1913 it, in turn, was replaced by another located in the northwest corner of Brothers Field. Finally, in 1917 a beautiful new quarter-mile cinder track with a six-lane 220-yard straight-away was permanently installed on its present location in the southeast corner of the Phillips Academy campus. By that time track had been firmly ensconced as the third major sport, and cross country, its offspring, had become a strong minor sport in the fall.
The phenomenal growth of the physical plant in the early years of Principal Stearns' stewardship and the seemingly haphazard explosion of athletics, partly a result of that growth, tend to obscure the role of the Faculty in those exhilarating proceedings. Nobody had been more sensitive than Dr. Bancroft, Al Stearns' predecessor, to the recruiting of a strong faculty: "A teacher is not a hired hand, but a highly trained professional whose experience and judgment are vital assets to society . . "(38) Since boarding school faculty must not only be academically capable of high performance in the classroom as well as reasonably expert in counselling their "live-in" wards in a dormitory or coaching them on the athletic field, the requirements are doubly difficult to meet. Dr. Stearns, therefore, was very fortunate in the group of men he inherited from his uncle who, among their other talents and proclivities, were very much interested in the athletic situation at the school. Leading the list was James C. Sawyer, Andover classmate and life-long friend of the new Principal. A Yale graduate with further training in engineering at M.I.T. and Harvard, Jim joined the Board of Trustees of Phillips Academy and was elected Treasurer of the school in 1901. Not an outstanding athlete himself, the new Treasurer had, nevertheless, been prominent in the management of athletic affairs both at Andover and at Yale. Consequently, when his old friend was appointed Headmaster in 1903, Jim was in an ideal position to help him run the school. The remarkable team of Stearns and Sawyer essentially built the modern Phillips Academy. Planning ahead and working together, they acquired the real estate necessary for the Academy to grow, added new dormitories to accommodate more students, enlarged the athletic facilities, and with the help of another Andover classmate, George C. Case, started the alumni fund which plays such a significant financial role in the affairs of Phillips Academy today. The Phillipian in its 125th Anniversary issue paid tribute to both Damon and Pythias, with a special compliment to the Treasurer:
Both by training and natural ability Mr. Sawyer is especially fitted for the position he now holds. Many of the most noticeable improvements of the school property have been brought about through his efforts. The work of the Treasurer's office has been systematized and rendered more efficient. Through a direct and personal supervision the various interests of the Academy have been most thoroughly looked after. Too much praise cannot be given to the new Treasurer for the way in which he has planned and carried out the many recent and much needed changes on Andover Hill.
Certainly Jim Sawyer's considerable interests and capabilities more than compensated for the fact that he was not a classroom teacher.
|Matthew S. McCurdy of the Mathematics Department. A teacher from 1874-1921, he was a staunch supporter of the Andover sports program.|
There were also a few other standbys, the "triple-threats" of the modern generation. Matthew S. McCurdy taught mathematics at Phillips Academy for forty-seven years. He was Mr. Ubiquitous on the campus. Outside of the classroom he might be found timing a hockey game on Rabbit Pond, running an inter-class track meet in the fall or spring, or taking a fencing lesson in the gym on a Saturday night in the winter. He was a man of many parts; he and his wife were much in demand as chaperones at the stag dances or the junior and senior proms. They entertained students quite regularly and, in turn, were feted by them. And there was Charlie Forbes, the genial classicist, whose career at Andover also spanned forty-seven years. He was largely responsible for the formation of the Andover Golf Club and was its only treasurer. He, too, participated regularly in the athletic events on the Hill, either as an official at both intramural and varsity games or as a faculty member of the "indoor baseball team." Included among the "doers" was Archie Freeman, the historian who, as the first faculty treasurer of the Athletic Association, had been instrumental in bringing some semblance of order to the financing of the various sports in the earlier years.(39) Because faculty people like these worked so closely with the boys and with the Administration, their contributions to the morale of the institution were invaluable. Ironically enough, most of these competent and versatile schoolmasters were very demanding teachers and strict disciplinarians and yet were able to evoke the admiration and respect of the students. When Matt McCurdy was laid low by an attack of typhoid fever in the fall of 1906, the first issue of the new Phillips Bulletin carried the following:
The school at large extends to Mr. McCurdy its hearty congratulations on his complete recovery, and his ability once more to take up his class-room work .... Since 1873 Mr. McCurdy has taught almost without interruption up to the present time. Barring his recent illness, he has never been absent from his classes for more than a day or two at a time. Mr. McCurdy has always been an enthusiastic follower of the athletics of the school, and enjoys the unique distinction of having never missed an Andover-Exeter contest since games were started between the two schools. Through all these years of service Mr. McCurdy has endeared himself to hundreds, even thousands of old Phillips boys, who will hear with genuine rejoicing of his recovery and return to work.(40)
What more fitting tribute to a New England schoolmaster!
Principal Stearns followed the lead of his predecessor in his hiring policy, and by 1912 had added to the Faculty several more scholar athletes, in addition to Mr. Lillard. They included Frank O'Brien and Horace Poynter, two former Andover graduates. O'Brien had been captain of the school baseball team in 1902, a fine hockey player, and president of his class. After a brilliant baseball career at Yale as captain he taught at the Hill School before returning to Andover to teach English and coach both baseball and hockey. Poynter had been a runner at Andover and Yale, a man of many talents who established a fearsome reputation as a demanding Latin teacher and an excellent track and club football coach in his long career at Phillips Academy. Claude M. Pifer, another newcomer, had been hired in English after three years abroad as a Rhodes scholar and an additional year of graduate study at Columbia. It was a formidable lineup.
Apparently the plethora of coaching talent on the Andover faculty caused some raised eyebrows among a few alumni, who were positive that it was impossible for the teaching staff to coach without lowering the academic tone of the school. Student response to the accusations was predictable, outrightly denying the "senseless" charges that the Administration was choosing men for the faculty solely for their athletic prowess and ability to coach. One by one each of the faculty coaches was defended by citing his scholarly achievements. The Principal simply took pleasure and satisfaction in turning out winning nines. Lillard's and O'Brien's scholarship records in college were unassailable; Dr. Page had a graduate degree in medicine, and in addition to Rhodes scholar Pifer there were five Phi Beta Kappa men in the ranks:
These are the men who take upon themselves, in addition to their full teaching work, the training of the students in some form of athletic exercise and sport. They give up their own time because they like the boys and enjoy a share in their games. If it is a derogation of character for men of this caliber to direct athletic sports, and to be willing to give their time to them, then let us cry quits to the training of wholesome youth.(41)
It is interesting to speculate as to whether the alumni rumblings were prompted by the continued success of Andover football, which had recently put down its Red rivals for the eighth year in a row by a score of 7 to 0. But, then, what kind of alumni body develops a guilty conscience over athletic success? Whatever the reasons for the allegations from abroad, they were erased by the school's sharp rebuttal. It would be a long time before the Andover family would enjoy the luxury of exploring their consciences to justify an Andover football victory over Exeter.
The harmonious relationship between the Principal and a cooperative, contributing faculty molded Andover into a school whose form and tone strongly reflected the personality of Alfred E. Stearns. Always the moralist he was certainly as keenly interested in the character and personalities of the boys as he was in their intellectual development. In a progress report to the alumni at one of their first luncheon gatherings in June 1906, he stressed the importance of his faculty:
I feel that I cannot impress too strongly upon you the opportunity offered in the work of a school of this kind . . . . Our country today faces tremendous and perplexing problems, problems which will never be satisfactorily solved save by intellectual and morally earnest men .... and material interests are far too pressing. On every hand is the cry for character, and character only can further the best interests of this republic and stem the tides which threaten to engulf it.(42)
The home and the church were fast losing their influence on young people; therefore, heavier responsibilities for the development of character in the adolescent fell on the secondary school:
Here, if anywhere, is need of men, not merely of keen intellect and high scholarship, but men of character, of strength, of lofty moral purpose and inspiring personality; men who are big enough to realize that their influence and work cannot be confined to or measured by class room standards alone, but who will see and gladly accept the opportunities which lie all about them for influencing for good the lives of those who compose the school community.(43)
The messianic strain lay deeply imbedded in Al Stearns' personality.
He was also a traditionalist, who believed in duty and discipline. Later in his career he discussed these precepts at great length: . . . only to find our duty certainly and somewhere, someway to do it faithfully, makes us good, strong, happy and useful men . . . "(44) He had strong feelings about the lack of discipline in American society:
One is unpopular who speaks of discipline in these days. It is not good form. This is an age, we are given to understand, when youth should develop in its own way, unhampered and unrestrained. This pernicious doctrine has spread its roots in all directions, and these roots have gone in deep.(45)
For Dr. Stearns duty involved service for others and not for oneself. One invested himself and his talents in the welfare of the community. To do that one had constantly to face the exacting demands of discipline.(46)
A proud man who loved his school, Al was anxious to uphold the constructive traditions which had grown up around athletics at Andover, and even to initiate a few of his own if they would improve the morale of faculty and students in a positive way. But there would be no resurrection of the "muckerish" and irresponsible antics of an earlier period. He assumed that the preservation of established customs and traditions involved a responsibility which rested upon every student in the school, whose duty it was to uphold the illustrious heritage of Phillips Academy. For the benefit of the new students every year the Student Council issued a little booklet listing the common customs and special features of school life. The "Preps" (newcomers) were urged to abide by them. The influence of Principal Stearns and his faculty are everywhere evident in the disclosure. The section appertaining to athletics contained thirteen do's and don't's:
Candidates for managerships of athletic teams must first be approved by the Faculty and the Athletic Advisory Board before their names can be presented to the school for election.
Members of the baseball, football, and track teams are clapped each morning as they enter chapel during the week preceding the annual contests with Exeter.
Members of the above teams leave chapel first on the mornings of Exeter contests.
The student body marches to the field to watch the practice for two days preceding the baseball, football, and track contests with Exeter.
Cheering at all games is in charge of and directed by the regularly appointed cheer leaders.
Misplays of opponents are not cheered, and good plays are applauded.
Celebrations of victories are in charge of the managers of the victorious teams and the regular cheer leaders.
On the days of Andover-Exeter contests the two schools have agreed to abide by the following regulations:
(1) The visiting players and school shall not be met at the depot on their arrival nor escorted to the depot after the game by the members of the home school.
(2) No formal celebration shall be started until after the visiting school has left the town.
During the contests with Exeter all students are expected to occupy seats in the cheering section and to remain in their seats until the game is over, and later if so ordered by the cheer leaders.
The opposing schools are accustomed to cheer each other previous to contests.
Defeated teams are cheered individually at the close of games.(47)
Al Stearns was a great Headmaster because he was passionately concerned with the development of the total boy, and because he was a leader. As an academician he was no innovator and perhaps to many people his strict moral code belonged to a bygone era. But his accomplishments as an administrator and the positive influence he had on the young men in his charge can never be denied. His capacity for work was enormous and touched upon all areas of the Andover community---students, parents, faculty, alumni, and even the townspeople. And he evoked the loyalty of all these groups, a devotion to him and his work which resulted in the extraordinary transformation of Phillips Academy during those first fifteen years of his stewardship.